Vineyards area under Sitno vulcan is simply magic place with two climatic worlds on vulcanic underlay. This is where hot, south Europe end sup (Pannonicum) and cold, north part of Europe starts its leadership (Carpaticum occidentale).
Vineyards are placed on the base of south slopes of Štiavnica mountains and uplands of Ipeľ, having its roots immersed deep into vulcanic underlay created long time ago by monumental Sitno vulcan.
Its altitude was originally 4000m, covering area of 2200 km². Architectonic masterpiece Banská Štiavnica city lays on its collapsed caldera.
Vineyards under Sitno vulcan are spread on tuff and andesite soil. Simply we may say, soft tuff is vulcanic ash, hard andesite vulcanic lava.
Vulcnic soil is porous, very well absorbing water and gases, which might be utilized by vineyards during its growth.
Vulcanic soils form only up to 1% from entire earth area. These 124 mio hectares provides food for 10% of mankind!
Historic development of Sitno stratovulcan was complex process at the badene and sarmate age (15 – 11 mio years ago) in five main stages. That was an era where monumental eruptions and moderate times had been changing each other.
Vineyards area under Sitno vulcan is relatively small , including following villages: Rybník, Čajkov, Nová Dedina, Podlužany, Devičany, Brhlovce, Bátovce, Žemberovce, Jabloňovce, Pukanec city and partly north part of district Levice city.
Štiavnica mountains as a part of subprovince Inlay West Carpats are having vulcanic base and belong to neovulcans formed by andesites, tuffs, ryolits and brecciases. Area is extremely rich on minerals (appr. 140 mineral varieties) and dry metals being mined extensively in not far history.
Ipeľ uplands is geomorphologic subpart of Podunaj uplands located at the base of Štiavnica mountains and forms north promontory of westpannonic skillet. Partly it towers up to 290 m above sea level with vulcanic ashes from Štiavnica mountains in its underlay. Clash of upland and mountain give raise of mineral and thermal sources in Santovka, Slatina and Dudince villages. Santovka source composition resambles to sea water, enriched by calcium hydrogen sulfide.